Iran has surprisingly a broad variety of landscape and climate, from Caspian Sea to Persian Gulf coastlines the scenery and landform can dramatically shift from green mountains and forests to salt lakes and deserts. Travelling to Iran gives you a chance to experience a vast range of activity related to each geographical part, which is varied from trekking and mountain climbing to crossing dessert by foot. Here we try to give a brief overview of different geographic division in Iran.


Iran is one of the most mountainous countries in the world. Its mountains have helped to shape both the political and the economic history of the country for several centuries. The western side of the country possesses the largest mountain ranges such as Alborz, and Zagros ranges.

The famous mount Damavand is located in the middle of the Alborz range. Symbol of national pride, Damavand has a special stand in Persian mythology and stories. Alborz range that stretched from east to west of Iran links Himalaya to Alps also works as a wall between the desert in south and dense forests in northern Iran.

Zagros range that extends from northwest to south of Iran is the longest mountain range in Iran. Zagros with its unique forms of cliffs, valleys and waterfalls is the home of one of most beautiful mountain “Zardkouh Bakhtiyari”. Trekking and mountaineering in this area gives you the opportunity to visit Nomads and experience nomad life style.

Many peaks in the Zagros exceed 4,000 meters above sea level.


Iran is climatically part of the Afro-Asian belt of deserts, with two main desert; “lut desert” and “Dasht kavir”. The “Lut Desert” widely referred to as Dasht-e Lut is a large salt desert located in the provinces of Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan. In the Persian language “lut” refers to bare land without water and vegetation. “Lut desert” is listed on the UNESCO world heritage. Between June and October, strong winds transport sands and causes huge yardang landforms. This area consists of active dunes some reaching heights of 475m and are amongst the largest dunes in the world. In 2005 “Lut desert” with the temperature of 70.7°C has registered the hottest point on earth.

Jungle around the Caspian Sea

The major provinces in northern Iran, Gilan and Mazandaran, are covered with dense forests, snow-covered mountains and impressive sea shores. These Hyrcanian Mixed Forests are beautifully stretched along the shore, villages on high mountain tops and special food in this region attracts many tourists from other provinces in Iran.